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《中国人权法治化保障的新进展》白皮书(3)(中英对照)

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II. Promoting Law-based Administration to Protect the Citizens' Lawful Rights and Interests
二、依法行政保障公民合法权益
Law-based administration is important in legal protection of human rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has made it clear that all government functions and powers must be provided for in the law, strictly regulated the administrative enforcement of law, strengthened checks and scrutiny over government power, and put into effect the "Implementation Outline for Building a Law-based Government (2015-2020)", thereby effectively protecting the people's legitimate rights and interests.
依法行政,建设法治政府,是人权法治化保障的重要环节。中共十八大以来,中国推进政府职权法定化,严格规范行政执法,强化对行政权力的制约和监督,全面实施《法治政府建设实施纲要(2015-2020年)》,有效维护广大人民群众合法权益。
Delimiting administrative power in accordance with the law. That all government functions and powers are provided for in the law is the prerequisite for law-based administration. The state has accelerated the process of defining in law the administrative structure and its functions, powers, procedures and responsibilities, prohibited administrative organs from expanding power beyond the law, and confined the exercise of power in an institutional "cage."
依法明确行政权力边界。职权法定是依法行政的前提。国家加快推进行政机构、职能、权限、程序、责任法定化,禁止行政机关法外设定权力,把权力关进制度的笼子。
China is also pressing ahead with the reform of administrative approval. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the State Council departments have canceled the requirement for administrative approval on 618 items and put an end to the practice of non-administrative approval, and 269 items designated by the central government for local government approvals and accreditations have been annulled. The State Council has removed 320 intermediary services from administrative approval, and cut off over 70 percent of professional qualification approvals and accreditations set by its departments. The investment catalogue for government approval has been revised three times, by means of which the number of investment items requiring central government approval has fallen by 90 percent.
深入推进行政审批制度改革,中共十八大以来,国务院部门累计取消行政审批事项618项,彻底清除非行政许可审批,中央指定地方实施行政许可事项目录清单取消269项,国务院行政审批中介服务清单取消320项,国务院部门设置的职业资格许可和认定事项削减比例达70%以上,3次修订政府核准的投资项目目录,中央层面核准的投资项目数量累计减少90%。
China has implemented the system of power or responsibility list, through which the public can obtain information about government functions, duties and powers, and their legal basis. By 2016, 31 provincial-level governments had published such lists. The Chinese government has strengthened the supervision and management of normative documents. Normative documents issued by government organs should not set items for administrative permission, punishment or coercion. All administrative regulations and normative documents must be filed for record and examined, and mistakes, if any, must be investigated.
实施权力清单、责任清单制度,将政府职能、法律依据、职责权限等内容以权力清单的形式向社会公开,截至2016年,全国31个省级政府部门均已公布权力清单。加强规范性文件监督管理,行政机关规范性文件不得设定行政许可、行政处罚、行政强制,各类行政法规、规章和规范性文件都已纳入备案审查范围,实现“有件必备,有备必审,有错必究”。
Checking in accordance with the law the exercise of administrative power. China aims to establish an authoritative and efficient administrative law enforcement system in which power is consistent with responsibility. The Chinese government has accelerated the reform of the administrative law enforcement system, and further promoted synthesized law enforcement in fields such as food and drug safety, industrial and commercial quality inspection, public health, workplace safety, resource and environment protection, traffic and transport, and urban and rural construction.
依法约束行政权力行使。建立权责统一、权威高效的行政执法体制。推进行政执法体制改革,在食品药品安全、工商质检、公共卫生、安全生产、资源环境、交通运输、城乡建设等领域进一步推行综合执法。
It has improved the administrative law enforcement procedure, and explored the means to establish a benchmark system for discretion in enforcement. In some areas China has conducted three experiments: disclosing information concerning administrative law enforcement, recording the whole enforcement process, and reviewing the legality of major enforcement decisions.
完善行政执法程序,探索建立行政裁量基准制度。开展行政执法公示制度、执法全过程记录制度、重大执法决定法制审核制度试点。
The government has tried out innovative enforcement methods, and widespread non-coercive ones, including persuasion, teaching, citing good examples, and administrative guidance and rewards. It has regulated words and conduct of law-enforcement personnel, and required them to be flexible, reasonable and open in their approach to enforcement. It has established a qualification system for enforcement personnel and prohibited anyone without the required license from serving.
创新行政执法方式,推广说服教育、劝导示范、行政指导、行政奖励等非强制性执法手段。规范执法言行,推行人性化执法、柔性执法、阳光执法。实行行政执法人员持证上岗和资格管理制度。
In order to make full progress in building a law-abiding public security system, the Chinese government issued the "Decisions on Further Regulating the Public Security Departments in Law Enforcement", established more detailed law-enforcement standards and guidance, improved the supervision and management system, and amplified the law-based decision-making mechanism. By the end of June 2017, 2.27 million police officers all over the country had basic level certification for law enforcement, 1.35 million had obtained mid-level certification, and almost 41,000 had gained upper-level certification.
发布《关于深化公安执法规范化建设的意见》,全面建设法治公安,进一步细化公安执法标准和指引,完善执法监督管理体系,健全依法决策机制。截至2017年上半年,全国公安机关共有227.02万人次民警取得基本级执法资格,135.03万人次民警取得中级执法资格,4.08万人次民警取得高级执法资格。
China has expanded the auditing of all aspects of government affairs, especially in areas like public funds, state property, national resources, and how officials in leading positions fulfill economic duties. It has published the audit results regularly, so as to give a full play to the role of audit in scrutinizing and checking the exercise of power.
全方位开展审计工作,积极推进对公共资金、国有资产、国有资源和领导干部履行经济责任情况的审计全覆盖,定期向社会公告审计结果,充分发挥审计监督约束行政权力运行的作用。
The Chinese government has strengthened the accountability investigation for administrative errors. To build a responsible government, it has set up a mechanism of internal legitimacy review of major decisions, and explored the means to establish and implement a lifelong liability accounting system for major decisions and a retrospective mechanism to hold people accountable for wrong decisions. Abiding by the principle that the decision-maker assumes the responsibility, anyone who causes heavy losses by exceeding his/her competence or infringing the decision-making procedure must be held accountable.
加大行政问责力度,推进责任政府建设,普遍建立行政机关内部重大决策合法性审查机制,探索建立和实施重大决策终身责任追究制度及责任倒查机制,按照“谁决策、谁负责”的原则,对超越权限、违反程序决策造成重大损失的,严肃追究决策者责任。
In order to raise officials' awareness of responsibilities for protecting the ecological system and people's environmental rights, the Measures for Liability Investigation of Party and Government Officials for Damage to Ecological Environment (trial) stipulate that both senior Party officials and leading government officials will have lifelong accountability for 25 specified types of damage to the ecological environment.
实施《党政领导干部生态环境损害责任追究办法(试行)》,对25种党政领导干部生态环境损害情形实行党政同责、终身追责,提高各级领导干部保护自然生态和环境权利的责任意识。
Safeguarding in accordance with the law the citizens' right to participate in administrative decision making. The government has improved decision-making procedures, which define public participation, expert evaluation, risk assessment, legality review, and collective discussion and decision as the legal procedures for making major administrative decisions. The central government has encouraged local governments at or above the county level to employ legal advisers and lawyers to provide legal opinions for major administrative decisions and actions.
依法保障公民在行政决策中的参与权。优化决策程序,把公众参与、专家论证、风险评估、合法性审查、集体讨论决定确定为重大行政决策法定程序。推行政府法律顾问制度和公职律师制度,推动县级以上各级党政机关普遍设立法律顾问、公职律师,为重大决策、重大行政行为提供法律意见。
China has also explored to set up a consulting expert database for administrative decisions. The governments invite experts and specialized institutes to discuss on those decision matters of strong professional or technological nature, so as to increase their capabilities in law-based administration. When making decisions on people's livelihood like E-hailing and express delivery services, the related departments of the Chinese government solicited opinions from a wide range of circles to balance the interests and requests of different groups.
探索建立行政决策咨询论证专家库,对专业性、技术性较强的决策事项组织专家、专业机构进行论证,提高依法行政的能力水平。有关部门在规范网约车、快递行业等民生领域事项决策过程中广泛征求各方意见,统筹兼顾不同群体的利益诉求。
Protecting in accordance with the law the citizens' right to scrutinize the exercise of administrative power. In the context of the Regulations on the Disclosure of Government Information and adhering to the principle that information is to be withheld only in exceptional circumstances, the government prioritizes for information disclosure in such fields as administrative approval, fiscal budget and final accounts, basic need housing, food and drug safety, land requisition and resettlement of displaced residents.
依法保障公民对行政权力的监督权。以政府信息公开条例为依据,坚持以公开为常态,不公开为例外原则,重点推进行政审批、财政预决算、保障性住房、食品药品安全、征地拆迁等领域的信息公开。
New channels of disclosure have been created. The government has improved online government information services and online administrative services, giving a greater role to IT in the disclosure of government information and making public access to such information more convenient. The websites of 126 government departments have been upgraded for the benefit of people with disabilities.
创新政务公开方式,加强互联网政务信息数据服务平台和便民服务平台建设,提高政务公开信息化、集中化水平,增强公民获取信息的便捷性,126个政府单位政务网站完成了无障碍改造。
The government has set up a registration system that allows complaints and reports of illegal conduct by administrative departments to be made via mail, email, hotlines and other channels of supervision. It also attaches importance to the supervisory role of traditional media like newspapers, periodicals, broadcasters and television, and regulates and accepts online oversight.
建立对行政机关违法行政行为投诉举报登记制度,畅通举报邮箱、电子信箱、热线电话等监督渠道。发挥报刊、广播、电视等传统媒体监督作用,运用和规范网络监督。
Tackling in accordance with the law the serious issues that infringe the citizens' rights of life, health and property. The government takes a zero-tolerance attitude toward environmental pollution. In accordance with the law, the government has closed or rectified small, poorly-managed and heavily-polluting enterprises, and enterprises that illegally discharge pollutants. The government has strengthened inspection and law enforcement in the catering industry, encouraging open restaurant kitchens. In order to ensure workplace safety, the government has enhanced supervisory inspections to seek out hidden hazards and dangers through regular open and secret visits, unannounced investigations, and random checks.
依法治理侵犯公民生命健康财产权利的突出问题。对环境污染采取零容忍,依法清理“散乱污”企业、关停整改违法排污企业。在餐饮业实施“明厨亮灶”,加强稽查执法。在安全生产领域强化监管执法,不间断开展明查暗访、突击检查、随机抽查,全面排查各类风险隐患。
China prioritizes the fight against telemarketing scams and internet fraud. The Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and other 21 ministries and institutions have established an interdepartmental meeting mechanism on fighting new forms of telemarketing scams and internet fraud, and the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and several other departments have jointly issued the "Notice on Deterring and Combating Crimes of Telemarketing Scams and Internet Fraud". Through investigation, punishment and prevention of crimes, the related departments have improved the relevant law-enforcement mechanisms, stopped the spread of such crimes, and safeguarded the people's security and property.
集中打击电信网络诈骗犯罪,公安部、工业和信息化部等23个部门和单位建立打击治理电信网络新型违法犯罪工作部际联席会议制度,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部等部门联合发布《关于防范和打击电信网络诈骗犯罪的通告》,坚持侦查打击、重点整治、防范治理三管齐下,不断完善相关执法制度,有效遏制案发态势,维护了人民群众的生命财产安全。
The government has strengthened social governance and fostered innovation in this regard. By strengthening and innovating governance of a safe society, integrating such governance with the systemic, comprehensive and law-based governance, and addressing the root causes of problems, China has resolved a number of serious problems that threatened the social peace and order. The public's sense of security has been further reinforced.
加强和创新社会治理,把社会治安专项治理与系统治理、综合治理、依法治理、源头治理结合起来,解决了一批影响社会治安的突出问题,人民群众安全感进一步增强。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
certification [.sə:tifi'keiʃən]
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n. 证明,保证,鉴定
联想记忆
reasonable ['ri:znəbl]
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adj. 合理的,适度的,通情达理的
 
ecological [.ekə'lɔdʒikəl]
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adj. 生态的,生态学的
 
discretion [di'skreʃən]
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n. 谨慎,判断力,个人选择,选择的自由
[计
 
context ['kɔntekst]
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n. 上下文,环境,背景
联想记忆
environment [in'vaiərənmənt]
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n. 环境,外界
 
participation [pɑ:.tisi'peiʃən]
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n. 参加,参与
 
institutional [.insti'tju:ʃənəl]
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adj. 制度上的,惯例的,机构的
 
evaluation [i.vælju'eiʃən]
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n. 估价,评价
 
innovative ['inəuveitiv]
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adj. 革新的,创新的
 

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